Mount Semeru or Sumeru is the highest volcano on Java island, with a peak Mahameru, 3676 meters above sea level (mdpl). The crater at the peak of Mount Semeru Jonggring known Saloko.
Semeru has dipterokarp forest hills, forest above dipterokarp, Montane forest, and ericaceous forests or mountain forests.
The position of this mountain region located between the administration and Lumajang Malang Regency, with a geographic position between 8 ° 06 'S and 120 ° 55' E.
In the year 1913 and 1946 crater dome Jonggring Saloka has a height of 3744.8 M until the end of November 1973. Adjacent to the south, the dome crater edge to break the flow of lava gets PASIRIAN southern regions, and Lumajang Candiputro.
It takes about four days to climb the mountain Sumeru round-trip. To climb the mountain semeru can be done through the city of Malang or Lumajang. From the terminal we poor city ride public transportation to the village Mixed. Connected again with the jeep or truck there is lots of vegetables in the back of the terminal market with cost Tumpang 20,000 per person, - to post Ranu Pani.
Previously we stopped at Gubugklakah to obtain a driver's license, with the details, license fees Rp.6.000, - to a maximum of 10 people, park admission Rp.2.000, - per person, per person Rp.2.000 Insurance,
By using vegetable truck or jeep trip starts from Mixed to Ranu Pani, the last village at the foot semeru. Here is the post examination, there are also shops and cottages. For climbers who brought the tent is charged Rp 20,000, -/tenda and if a camera is charged Rp 5,000, -/buah. Climbers can also spend the night at the guard post. Ranu Pani in the post, there are two lakes namely Lake Ranu Pane (1 ha) and Lake Ranu Regulo (0.75 ha). Situated at an altitude of 2200 mdpl.
Having arrived at the gate "welcome", note continues to the left up the hill, do not follow the broad road to the garden population. In addition to the usual path traveled the climbers, there is also a common shortcut used by local climbers, this path is very steep.
After walking about 5 km down the hillside overgrown with flowers Edelweis lot, and will arrive at Watu Rejeng. Here there is a steep stone is very beautiful. Very beautiful scenery to the valley and hills, are overgrown with fir and pine forests. Sometimes the smoke can be seen from the top of semeru. Ranu Kumbolo to go still has a distance of about 4.5 Km.
In Ranu Kumbolo be setting up camp. There is also a climbing hut (shelter). There is a lake with clean water and has beautiful scenery, especially in the morning to watch the sunrise on the sidelines of hill. Many fish, sometimes wild grouse. Ranu Kumbolo an altitude of 2400 m with an area of 14 ha.
Of Ranu Kumbolo should prepare as much water as possible. Ranu Kumbolo left then climb the steep hill, with beautiful scenery at the lake behind. In front of the hill lies a vast prairie called oro-oro Ombo. Oro-oro Ombo surrounded by hills and mountains with beautiful scenery, wide meadows with slopes of pine trees like in Europe. From behind the Mt. Kepolo looked peak Mt. Semeru Gembel wedus smoke belching.
Further into the Pine forests where the birds and sometimes deer are found, sometimes a tiger, which he said had become extinct Java tiger. This area is called Cemoro Cage.
Postal KALIMATI an altitude of 2700 m, here, can be set up tents for a rest. This postal area of pasture on the edge of pine forest, so many available branches to build a fire.
There SumberMani springs, to the west (right) through the edge of the forest with a distance KALIMATI 1 hour round trip. In KALIMATI and in many Arcopodo mountain rats.
For to Arcopodo turn left (East) runs about 500 meters, then turn right (south) down a little KALIMATI pasture. Arcopodo is 1 hour from KALIMATI through pine forests very steep, with a simple soil erosion and dust. We can also camped in Arcopodo, but less stable soil conditions and frequent landslides. We recommend using goggles and masks because many fly ash. Arcopodo an altitude of 2.900m, is the area of vegetation Arcopodo last at Mount Semeru, the rest will be through the sand dunes.
To the top of Semeru Arcopodo takes 3-4 hours, past the dunes very steep and easily dropped. As a travel guide, at this point there are several small triangular flag is red. All luggage should stay in or on KALIMATI Arcopodo. The climb to the summit made the early morning at around 02.00 am from Arcopodo.
Daytime wind cendurung north toward the summit carrying a toxic gas from the crater Jonggring Saloka.
The climb should be done in the dry season is in June, July, August, and September. Should not climb in the rainy season due to frequent storms and landslides.
At the peak of Mount Semeru (top Mahameru) climbers are advised to not to Jonggring Saloko crater, also prohibited from ascending the south side, because of the poisonous gas and lava flows. Mahameru dipuncak temperature ranges from 4 to 10 degrees Celsius, at the peak of the dry season minus 0 degrees Celsius, and found ice crystals. The weather is often foggy, especially at lunch, afternoon and evening. The wind, the month of December to January is often a storm.
Gembel wedus eruption every 15-30 minutes at the peak of Sumeru mountain is still active. In November 1997 Gn.Semeru erupted 2990 times as much. At noon the wind to the summit, to avoid it came in the afternoon peak, because the poisonous gas and the explosion led to the summit.
The eruption of white smoke, gray to black with the eruption of 300-800 meters high. Material that came out on every eruption of ash, sand, gravel, stones and even hot burning very dangerous if the climber is too close. In early 1994 the hot lava streaming down the southern slope Gn.Semeru and asked several casualties, hot river scenery, winding toward the sea has become a very interesting spectacle.
In general, the climate in the region including the Sumeru mountain climate type B (schmit and Ferguson) with 927 mm rainfall - 5498 mm per year with the number of rainy days 136 days / year and the rainy season falls in the month of November to April. Semeru dipuncak Temperatures range from 0 to 4 degrees Celsius.
The average temperature ranges between 3 ° C - 8 ° C at night and early morning, whereas during the day ranged between 15 ° c - 21 ° C. Sometimes in some areas there is little snowfall occurs during the rainy season changes to summer or vice versa. Cold temperatures along this route is not only caused by the air still but is supported by the wind that blew into the area causing the cold air.
The mountain is entered in the National Park area Bromo Tengger Semeru. This National Park consists of mountains and valleys covering 50,273.3 hectares. There are several mountains in the Caldera Gn.Tengger among others; Gn.Bromo (2.392m) Mt. Batok (2.470m) Gn.Kursi (2.581 m) Gn.Watangan (2.662m) Gn.Widodaren (2.650m). There are four lakes (ranu): Ranu Pani, Ranu Regulo, Ranu Kumbolo, Ranu Darungan.
Flora in the Region of Mount Semeru diverse species but many dominated by pine, acacia, pine, and the type of lamuju. As for the plants dominated by kirinyuh, reeds, tembelekan, harendong and white Edelwiss, there is lots of Edelwiss on the slopes toward the Sumeru Peak. And also found several species of orchids endemic to living in the surrounding South Semeru.
Many of fauna which inhabit the mountain Sumeru, among others: Tiger beetles, Budeng, Luwak, deer, deer, etc.. While in there Kumbolo Ranu Belibis wild living.
The first climber
The first person to climb this mountain is Clignet (1838) was a Dutch geologist from the southwest through Widodaren, then Junhuhn (1945) was a Dutch botanist from the north through the mountains Ayet-ayek, mountain-Inder and Inder Kepolo mountain. In 1911 Van Gogh and Heim through the northern slopes and after 1945 are generally carried out by climbing through the northern slopes and Ranu Kumbolo Ranupane today.
Legend of Mount Semeru
According to Javanese belief written in ancient books that come Tantu Cultural dariabad to 15, the island of Java at some time floating in the ocean, the waves being played here and there. The Gods decided to tack the island of Java in a way to move Mount Meru in India to the island of Java.
Lord Vishnu transformed into a giant turtle holding dipunggungnya mountain, while Lord Brahma was transformed into a long snake that wraps her body in the mountains and the tortoise, so the mountain can be transported safely.
The Gods are placed on top of the mountain the first part of the island they met, namely in the western part of Java Island. But the weight of the mountain caused the eastern tip of the island rose into the air. Then they move to the east of the island but still crooked, so they decided to cut some of the mountain and placed in the northwest.
This fragment formed Pawitra Mountain, which is now known as Mount Pananggungan, and the main part of Mount Meru, where dwells the god Shiva, is now known as Mount Sumeru. At the time of Sang Hyang Shiva came to the island of Java barley saw many trees, so the island is called Java.
Geographical environment of Java and Bali were matched with symbols of the Hindu religion. In the Hindu religion is the belief of Mount Meru, Mount Meru is considered as the home of the gods and as a means of liaison between the earth (man) and Heaven. If people want to hear the voices of their gods to meditation at the top of Mount Meru. Many Javanese and Balinese society today still consider the mountain as the dwelling place of gods or spirits. Furthermore mountainous areas are still used by people of Java as a place of meditation to hear the magic.
According to the Balinese Mount Mahameru believed to be the father of Mount Agung in Bali and respected by the people of Bali. Ceremonial offerings to the gods of Mount Mahameru done by the Balinese. However ceremony conducted only once every 8-12 years at the time people just accept the mysterious voice from the gods of Mount Mahameru. Besides offering ceremony of the Balinese that often come to the cave to get Tirta Widodaren sacred.
People rose to the top there Mahameru which aims to hear the magical sounds. There was also a request to be given a prolonged life. However the reason people climbed to the top Mahameru, most people feared by the various ghosts that inhabit the area around the mountain. These ghosts are the spirits of ancestors who inhabit places like forests, hills, trees and lakes.
Ancestral spirits are usually aimed at keeping the various places and must be respected. Hikers who stay at the lake Kumbolo Ranu Ranu often see ghosts Kumbolo. At midnight there was light orange in the middle of the lake and suddenly transformed into a ghost woman. Usually only people who have mystical powers he will see ghosts and can talk to ghosts. Whatever people believe in ghosts or not but many people who believe that the Java area Bromo, Tengger, Semeru many inhabited by ghosts.